Online Scientific Style and Format (2023)


The following examples illustrate the name-year system. In this system (sometimes called the Harvard system), in-text references consist of the last name of the author(s) and the year the document was published. Final citations are not numbered and are listed alphabetically by author and year of publication, with multiple works by the same author listed in chronological order.

Each example end reference is herein accompanied by an example of a corresponding reference in the text. For more details and many other examples, seechapter 29VonScientific style and format..


For final reference, list the authors in the order in which they appear in the original text. The year of publication follows the list of authors. Use periods to separate each element, including authors, publication date, article and journal titles, and volume or subject information. The location (usually the side section of the article) is preceded by a colon.

author(s). Date. article title. magazine title. Volume (Output): Location.

Journal titles are generally abbreviated according to the Title Word Abbreviation List maintained by the ISSN International Center. See Appendix 29.1 inScientific style and format.for more information.

For in-text references, use parentheses and list authors by last name followed by year of publication.

(author(s) year)

Para artículos con 2 autores, los nombres se separan por coma en la referencia final, pero por "e" en la referencia en el texto.

Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiological responses to exercise in standard breeds. I am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812-1817.

(Mazán and Hoffman 2001)

For articles with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the final reference; In the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by "et al".

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for patients with heart failure. Error on card J. 9(1):49-58.

(Smart et al. 2003)

For articles with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 at the end of the reference, followed by "et al".

Pizzi C, Caraglia M, Cianciulli M, Fabbrocini A, Libroia A, Matano E, Contegiacomo A, Del Prete S, Abbruzzese A, Martignetti A, et al. 2002. Low doses of recombinant IL-2 inducing psychological deterioration: follow-up by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Anticancer Res. 22(2A):727-732.

(Pizzi et al. 2002)

Unissued volume or other subdivision

Laskowski DA. 2002. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 174:49-170.

(Laskowski 2002)

Volume with issue and supplement

Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. 1988. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Pharmacol. 8(4 supplements):31S-37S.

(Gardos et al. 1988)

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Volume with supplement, but without problems

Heemskerk J, Tobin AJ, Ravina B. 2002. From chemical to drug: drug screening for neurodegeneration and the ethics of clinical trials. Nat Neurosci. 5 Supplement: 1027–1029.

(Heemskerk et al. 2002)

Numbers of various problems.

Ramstrom O, Bunyapaiboonsri T, Lohmann S, Lehn JM. 2002. Chemical biology of dynamic combinatorial libraries. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1572 (2-3): 178-186.

(Ramström et al. 2002)

output without volume

Sabatier R. 1995. Reorientation of health and social services. AIDS STD Health Promote Interch. (4):1-3.

(Sabatier 1995)


At the end of the source, separate the author(s), date, title, edition, and publication period information. The basic format is as follows:

author(s). Date. Qualification. edition. Place of publication: Publisher. Extension. Comments.

The scope can include information about paging or number of volumes and is considered optional. Annotations may contain information of interest to the reader, such as B. a language of publication other than English; these notes are optional. Important notes provide information about the location, e.g. B. a URL for online jobs. To seechapter 29for more information.

For books with 2 authors, the names are separated by a comma in the end reference, but by "e" in the body reference.

Leboffe MJ, Pierce BE. 2010. Microbiology: theory and laboratory application. Englewood (CO): Morton Publishing Company.

(Leboffe y Pierce 2010)

For books with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the final reference; In the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by "et al".

Ferrozzi F, Garlaschi G, Bova D. 2000. CT of metastases. New York (NY): Springer.

(Ferrozzi et al. 2000)

For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 at the end of the reference, followed by "et al."

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, et al. 1995. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Policy and Research (USA).

(Wenger et al. 1995)

organization as author

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[ALSG] Advanced Life Support Group. 2001. Acute Medical Emergencies: A Practical Approach. London (England): BMJ Books.

(ALSG 2001)

Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s)

Klarsfeld A, Revah F. 2003. The biology of death: origins of mortality. Brady L, translator. Ithaca (New York): Cornell University Press.

Luzikov VN. 1985. Mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York (NY): Consulting.

(Klarsfeld and Revah 2003)

(Luzikov 1985)

Chapter or other part of a book, same author(s)

Gawande A. 2010. The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get It Right. New York (NY): Metropolitan Books. Chapter 3, The Builder's End; p. 48-71.

(Gawande 2010)

Chapter or other part of a book, different authors

Rapley R. 2010. Recombinant DNA and genetic analysis. In: Wilson K, Walker J, editors. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology. 7th Edition New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 195-262.

(Rapley 2010)

Altogether a multi-volume work.

AlkireLG, Editor. 2006. Abbreviations of journal titles. 16th edition Detroit (MI): Thompson Gale. 2 vol. vol. 1, for abbreviation; volumen 2, By title.

(Rent 2006)

Dissertations and Theses

Lutz M. 1989. 1903: American jitters and the economics of cultural change [tesis doctoral]. [Stanford (CA)]: Universidad de Stanford.

(Lutz 1989)


Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD, Erfinder; Ophthalmic Ventures, Zessionar. November 13, 1990. Chirurgisches Klammersystem. US patent US 4,969,591.

(Blanco et al. 1990)


Weiss R. April 11, 2003. Study reveals problems with human cloning: Researchers find replication in primates will be more difficult than in other mammals. Washington Post (initial edition). sect R:12 (column 1).

(Branco 2003)

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Includes a copyright date with a lowercase "c".

Johnson D, editor. c2002. Surgical techniques in orthopedics: reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament [DVD]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. 1 DVD.

(Johnson c2002)

Websites and other online formats

Links to websites and other online formats follow the same general principles as print links, with the addition of an update/revision date (if available) along with an access date and URL.


Format for final reference:

Home page title. release date. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; [date updated; Date accessed]. Comments.

If the publication date cannot be determined, use a copyright date (if available) preceded by a "c". Paste the URL in the notes.

APSnet: Phytopathology online. c1994-2005. Street. Paul (MN): American Plant Pathology Association; [Accessed June 20, 2005].

For in-text references, include only the first word or two of the title (enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list), followed by an ellipsis.

(APSnet... c1994–2005)

online newspaper article

Format for final reference:

Author(s) of the article. release date. article title. Title of the magazine (number). [date updated; Access date]; Volume (edition): location. Comments.

Warnings may include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) ​​in addition to a URL, if applicable:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks in England and Wales 2004: an observational study. BMJ [Accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119-1120. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

(Salvaje et al. 2005)


Format for final reference:

author(s). release date. Title of the book. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; [date updated; Date accessed]. Comments.


Brogden KA, Guthmille JM, editors. 2002. Polymicrobial Diseases. Washington (D.C.): ASM Press; [Accessed February 28, 2014].

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(Brogden and Guthmille 2002)

the blog

Format for final reference:

Author's name. release date. Title of the publication [descriptive word]. Blog Title. [Date accessed]. Url address


Fogarty M. August 14, 2012. Twitter and Facebook headline format [blog]. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. [accessed 2012 Oct 19].

(Fogarty 2012)

Future or unreleased material

Not all future or unpublished sources are suitable for inclusion in bibliographies. If in doubt, contact your publisher.

Upcoming newspaper article or book

Magazine article:

Farley T, Galves A, Dickinson LM, Pérez MJ. To be published in July 2005. Stress, Coping, and Health: A Comparison of Mexican Immigrants, Mexican Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites. J Immigrant Health.

(Farley et al. 2005)

A lot:

Goldstein DS. To be published in 2006. Adrenaline and the inner world: an introduction to scientific integrative medicine. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press.

(Goldstein 2006)

Paper or poster presented at the meeting

The unpublished presentations are cited below:

Antani S, Long LR, Thoma GR, Lee DJ. 2003. Representation of the anatomical shape in X-ray images of the spine. Paper presented at: VIP 2003. Proceedings of the 3rd IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing; Benalmadena, Spain.

Charles L, Gmapper R. 2005. Analysis of MedlinePlus customer service requests in Spanish. Poster session featured in: ¡Futuro Magnifico! We celebrate our diversity. MLA '05: Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; San Antonio, Texas.

(Atani et al. 2003)

(Charles and Gmapper 2005)

References to published conferences are cited in the same way as book contributions, supplemented with information on the date and venue of the conference. To seechapter 29for more information.

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personal communication

References to personal communications are placed in the body of the text and not as final formal references. Approval is usually required and should be acknowledged in an 'Acknowledgments' or 'Notes' section at the end of the document.

. . . and most of these meningiomas were deemed inoperable (2003 letter to me from RS Grant; no reference, see 'Notes'), some were not.


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